What We Do

With increasing costs of evidence-based programs serving as a potential barrier to program adaption, our team has developed a process for leveraging implementation data to track costs associated with school-based mental health programs and supports. One such product is a cost calculator, which can be used to calculate the cost of school-based preventive interventions.

Related Projects: Center for Rural School Mental Health, MDS3, Double Check

A potential barrier to program adoption is the increasing cost of evidence-based programs. Our team has developed a process for leveraging implementation data to track costs associated with school-based mental health programs and supports. To date, we have conducted a series of cost analyses focused on PBIS, MTTS-B, and the Double Check coaching. This work has also resulted in the development of an online cost calculator.

Catherine Bradshaw

Catherine P. Bradshaw

  • Senior Associate Dean for Research
  • University Professor


  • Morgan-Lopez, A., Lochman, J.E., Bradshaw, C.P, Saavedra, L., McDaniel, H., Yaros,A., Powell, N., ... & Duran, C.A.K. (2021, May). Theoretically-Driven, Gender-Specificity in Coping Power’s Pathways to the Reduction of Suicide Risk and Completion: A Combined IDA/MIPD Study. In A. Morgan-Lopez (Chair), Emerging Issues in the Synthesis of Preventive Intervention Trial Data in Examining Crossover Effects on Suicidality and Related Psychiatric Disorders. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the Society for Prevention Research, Virtual Format.

Select Publications:

  • Bradshaw, C. P., Debnam, K. J., Player, D., Bowden, B., & Lindstrom Johnson, S. (2020).  A Mixed-Methods Approach for Embedding Cost Analysis Within Fidelity Assessment in School-Based Programs. Behavioral Disorders. DOI: 0198742920944850.
  • Bradshaw, C.P., Lindstrom Johnson, S., & Goodman, S. (2021). Leveraging findings on the cost of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports to inform decision making by leaders in special education programming. Journal of Special Education Leadership 34(1), 47-56.
  • Bradshaw, C. P, Lindstrom Johnson, S.,Zhu, Y., & Pas. E. T. (2020). Scaling-up behavioral health promotion efforts in Maryland: The economic benefit of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. School Psychology Review, 50(1), 99-109. https://doi.org/10.1080/2372966X.2020.1823797.
  • Lindstrom Johnson, S., Alfonso, Y.N., Pas, E. T., Debnam, K. J., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2020). Scaling-up PBIS: The distribution of costs across educational stakeholders. School Psychology Review, 49(4), 399-414. https://doi.org/10.1080/2372966X.2020.1777831
  • Pas, E.T., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Alfonso, Y.N., & Bradshaw, C.P. (2020). Tracking time and resources associated with systems change and the adoption of evidence-based programs: The “hidden costs” of school-based coaching. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 47, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-020-01039-w
  • Swain-Bradway, J., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Bradshaw, C.P., & McIntosh, K. (2017, November). What are the economic costs of implementing SWPBIS in comparison to the benefits from reducing suspensions? PBIS Technical Assistance Center. University of Oregon, Eugene, OR. https://www.pbis.org/Common/Cms/files/pbisresources/EconomicCostsSWPBIS.pd

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Mailing Address

  • 405 Emmet Street S
    PO Box 400281
    Charlottesville, VA 22903